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19-sept-cEssay Types

The term ‘essay’ has a few different meanings

depending on the area of knowledge and activity it is correlated to. The very first essays appeared in Japan and France in Medieval times as a piece of short literary work transfusing emotions and impressions of some occasion or abstract concept. Further, they expanded in a special genre not only in literature but in fine art, music, cinematography and photography.


Usually, essay is viewed as a small piece of text giving a writer enough space to express his/her thoughts and not to pad a reader. Moreover, it provides an opportunity to respond on some formal issue in more individual manner; this is being widely used in job applications (not to mention KSA (Knowledge, Skills and Abilities) and ECQ (Executive Core Qualification) – regular for U.S. job application forms, obligatory created as essays).

Essay is the most common variant of work to manage the educational process in the U.S. and EU universities

The majority of students achieving degree in humanitarian and social studies are expected to master their essay writing skills for the midterm and final exams or just to convey their thoughts properly during the regular learning.

There are numerous types of essays, depending on their purpose

The key-stone here is grounded with the mode of discourse or so-called EDNA (Exposition, Description, Narration, Argumentation) – four basic assessment forms.

The expository essay

is also known as five-step essay for the five- part structure of such a text. It is used as a basic learning tool helping students to get the essential idea of setting an argument or main theme followed with further evaluation and a conclusion placed at the very end of an essay. This essay usually has a structure of an introductory paragraph (where thesis is represented to a reader), three body paragraphs of evidential support and a conclusion that combines findings of previous passages with restating the thesis.

The aim of a descriptive essay

is to give a full image of any object, individual, feeling, and abstract thing to the reader. It requires both possibilities to visualize and to introduce visual or sensual concept verbally. Such type of essay starts from presentation of an object and continues with a description of it from different points of view and by various means; that typically demands an attentive writer who can find proper words and is somewhat a poet.

The narrative essay ‘tells’ a story

It is a perfect form for transition of life experience or an imaginary case into the ‘word’ area. Basics of literary work are used here: the structure of introduction, acquaintance with the characters, setting a conflict, providing its development, climax, and resolution. Narration from the first person is acceptable here as well as vivid language and sharp comparison. And remember that you are the one who leads the reader so be subsequent in your story.

Argumentative type of essay recollects the expository one

but is commonly used as deeper research tool and is assigned to students as final or end-term examination task. It could be built on the ground of five-step concept but not always. Typically a broad scope of material should be discussed. This requires thorough analysis and multilevel structure. In general, concise thesis is stated in the first paragraph and then is proved or repulsed with special arguments coming gradually in next passages. Language means of comparison and contrast combined with strong logic should persuade the reader in verity of the main thesis.


Court-CaseSilence in the courtroom! The order is disputed

How are the disputes usually resolved? This question is essential for every writer, because one can never foresee all the possible reasons for disputes. But we all want to prevent disputes; so, here we go.

A person who places an order always knows what he or she would like to get for the money paid. Therefore, they have to make sure that they have given clear initial instructions and requirements to the writer who attempts completing the paper. When something goes not the way it has been expected, a customer wants “justice”. Generally, there are two types of conflict situations depending on the outcome desired by the customer. They are the following:

  1. A customer is not happy with the paper but the deadline allows for a revision. After customers read through the paper, they might consider the essay as the one not following their demands or not being up to their expectations. As a possible outcome, the customer asks to change the writer.
  2. A customer is not happy with the paper but the submission time is already due. This suggests that your individual client might want some compensation for the mistakes made in the process of writing. The possible outcome is that the customer asks for reimbursement, refund of the money paid.

The thing is that usually such situations are the result of misunderstandings or the failure to comply with the responsibilities of each respective party. The customer may complain about:

  1. “Borrowed content”. This is a very serious issue that encompasses a number of consequences that you already know about. Hint: pay attention to every line you write, especially when you put a reference after the sentence. Make sure you used double quotation marks if it is a quote, i.e. direct, word-to-word rendering of any researcher’s intellectual property. Proper citing and referencing will guard you from being charged with plagiarism as a serious academic offense.
  2. References. This happens quite often. The main claim can be lack of sources cited or incorrect referencing style. Another problem might be the fact that not all sources are listed or referenced respectively. Hint: always double-check the style your customer requires the paper to be written in (MLA, APA, Harvard, Chicago, etc.). Do not forget to place a sufficient number of sources and cite all of them in the body of the paper.
  3. Not following samples or instruction files. Hint: never ignore or neglect the files uploaded. If you have any shadow of doubt, feel free to ask any question you want to guarantee that your final writing meets the customer’s demands.
  4. General instructions. This option includes insufficient or at times over-exceeding word count. Additionally, writers might skip some necessary tables, graphs, charts, steps of calculations, diagrams, or sketches etc. Hint: the only advice is to double-check all instructions to make sure you have not forgotten any essential detail.
  5. Basic requirements. These include the use of academic style, proper terminology, and writing free of grammatical errors. Hint: working knowledge of English is a prerequisite skill of a freelance writer; therefore, you should have no problems because such a situation will not happen to you considering your expertise and professionalism.
  6. Deadline. Hint: customers usually do need a paper if the time’s up and they cannot submit an essay anymore. It is one of your responsibilities to complete an order in a timely manner. So, if you’re being late with uploading an assignment, it is much better if you negotiate a deadline extension with your customer.

The paper may also be disputed by writer. DO NOT forget that in order to protect the efforts of our writers, Academia-Research allows for writers to raise a dispute.

Orders disputed by the writers. Remember you can always ask company’s admins to place an order on dispute for one of the following reasons:

  • The customer has uploaded new instruction files after you have delivered a completed paper.
  • Customer has introduced new readings to be used in the essay.
  • Revision instructions are drastically different from the original requirements.

In case when these situations take place, you are free to raise a dispute and let the competent departments decide on the matter at hand.

In conclusion, you might want to keep all these things in mind and always be very attentive to all the details that can lead to the undesired disputed order.


Brace yourself: your argumentative essay is coming

Have you ever seen two linguists arguing over a comma or the entire conference panel ready to explode because of some minor disagreement over the referencing style? Such academic disputes tend to grow into an epic war when the participants have not grasped the basics of argumentative writing.  Don’t be like them and argue reasonably!


Take a stand

An argumentative essay aims to persuade a reader to support a certain position or activity. In such an essay, you take a stand. Your position is defined in the thesis statement of the introduction. All further steps are directed to support your position with arguments.

Selecting an arguable position. The easiest way is to get an already formulated arguable position for your essay. However, most often you need to develop a specific argument from a general topic yourself. Imagine that the general topic is global warming. The latter fact has already got more than enough interpretation in various types of literature and media. In this respect, “global warming” itself cannot constitute a proper arguable position because it is a common fact. Instead, you can refer the problem in such a way: Reducing the use of the deodorant sprays will contribute positively to the struggle against global warming.

Arrange the arguments

It is solely up to you what organizational pattern to choose for your essay. Generally, the text can be divided into three main parts, introduction, body, and conclusion. What we need is a general strategy of writing an argumentative essay.

When you pass to formulating the thesis statement, you should indicate a subject of your argument and your position: The use of deodorant sprays should be reduced. Where the use of deodorant sprays is a subject, and should be reduced is a stand.

Be strong

The very next step is establishing credibility to the argument you’ve just presented. To do this, you need:

  • demonstrate a knowledge of the topic you are discussing;
  • consider the audience you are communicating with;
  • present fairly the opposing points of view (counterarguments).

NB! You should present at least two opposing points of view. You can give more counterarguments if you wish. However, it is very important to answer each one of them not to deter reader’s credit. Also, do not use emotionally colored vocabulary (‘corny environmentalists’, ‘parasites’, etc.) not to offend the feelings of the potential reader.

Your argument should have enough support in the text: personal experience; rhetorical colors; examples; precedents; experts’ comments etc. The structural pattern of your PROs and CONs within the body of the essay is left for your expert consideration.

With all this in mind, you can start defending your points in an intelligent and polite way. So, dear opponents, those who are about to win the argument salute you!

This tasty taste of writing:

what are tautology and redundancy and how to avoid them?

Have you ever come across “most recent new research”? Whoever your editor is, this person won’t miss such a construction, which in turn will lower the grade and your rating as a writer. So, it’s time to “specialize the case in details” and define redundancy to avoid it.

Here we deal with linguistic understanding both of redundancy and tautology, and only with it. Redundancy is unnecessary repetition of information both in speech and writing; another proper term for it is pleonasm. It’s also indicated as usage of predictable information or some superfluous words. Two most common types of pleonasm exist: syntactical (grammar) and semantic (word meanings and style).

Grammar redundancy is a kind of rather typical mistake in text

It usually isn’t highlighted with Microsoft Word program or other grammar checkers. It is seen as usage of similar constructions in sentences, same word patterns, repeating pronouns, propositions, and conjunctions. To understand the issue with grammar redundancy, compare two sentences:

“He stretched to the table because he wished to demonstrate that he still could move freely”.

“He stretched to the table to demonstrate he still could move freely”.

Both of them have similar meaning but the first one is overloaded with unnecessary constructions, while the second represents the same idea in a smoother way, following the main dogma of linguistics about “word economy”.

Contrary to grammar redundancy, semantic redundancy can be detected only by humans

People have got logic and imagination to detect contextual synonyms. For example, read this sentence and find two words with the same meaning:
“Scientists have got a general consensus of opinion concerning the solution of garbage recycle problem in the city”

Here, the words “consensus” and “opinion” convey almost the same meaning and usage of both is a kind of semantic redundancy. The same is with such expressions as “innocent and sinless child”, “most recent new research”, “sunset in the evening, “specialize the purpose in details” etc. Semantic redundancy is close to tautology and often is contaminated with it – as a kind of words with similar meaning that are used in the same word construction/sentence/passage.

Tautology is quite similar to semantic redundancy

However it also can also develop in repeating cognate words and simply repeating the same words through the text passage. “Horrible horror film”, “circulation of air circles”, “jump spots built for jumping” and so on give a clear idea of what tautology is.

Academic writing is already tough, and one doesn’t need to further complicate it by overloading texts with repeat constructions. Keep your style simple and re-read the text to eliminate the unnecessary expressions for your works to be clear and engaging to read.



Writing a strong conclusion


 Every academic writer is well aware of the importance of conclusion. It is often more than enough to get the general picture of the dissertation or an essay by going through this usually laconic section. Writing one, however, is no small feat.

That is mostly because it is rather hard to find anything useful or interesting to say in conclusions. Here are only the few out of many points to keep in mind when writing the “epilogue” of your dissertation

Many people prefer sticking to the “formula”

When writing one, but it would often be better to go without clichés and phrases like “We can conclude that…”. It would make your conclusions section feel more alive and written, because you “care”.
Do not forget to bring up the main idea of the research, its significance. When writing a conclusion you should show how you answered the main research question and brought closure to the problem. Do not concentrate on something that you have written in a single paragraph of the paper, instead try shedding some light on the issues of the whole research, carried throughout the paper.

Last chapter has several main purposes:

  • to summarize the results
  • to present your own suggestions and ideas about the research
  • to offer your advice and speculate on the future research in this area.

Check this list of most common tips useful to write a logical conclusion:

  1. Never underestimate the significance of the keywords. Use them and the phrases from the introduction wisely. Do not abuse this, however, as it may come to bite you in the end. But, putting the correct keywords and phrases in the correct places throughout the conclusion can greatly benefit you in the eyes of the person, researcher, etc. who is currently reviewing your paper.
  2. Do not lose “style”. Keep the same tone that you have used in the dissertation or essay. Try to refrain from using any ambiguity in your expressions, jokes and hard to understand contexts. The tone should be polite and formal. It will present you as the serious researcher, intent on having a serious and thoughtful discussion.
  3. Keep in mind that you are not to introduce any new ideas in your conclusion. This section in its entirety should signal the reader that you are trying to point out the significance of the paper and bring the whole dissertation to the definite and clear end. Disregarding this is not recommended, as it may be viewed as “disappointing” in the eyes of the reader, who wanted to see the answer to the question raised and not to be introduced to another unsolved problem.
  4. Always remember that a good researcher revises the conclusion along with the paper. If you are changing something in your essay or a dissertation, your conclusions section should become the mirror of the paper, accurately adjusting itself to whatever changes you have made. Rereading your own conclusions from time to time will do you no harm, but it may greatly benefit you in the long run.


These are only several points to keep in mind when writing a strong conclusion. Never hesitate to put some effort into this small section and your efforts will surely pay off.


Dissertation Proposal Basics

Everyone agrees that writing a dissertation is quite a difficult task. Multiple sources of information, previous researches, wide choice of methods and theories – all of these do not make this job easier.

Preparing a research proposal pays a pivotal role in organizing your thoughts to stick to the proper course while writing your final dissertation. One will definitely benefit from having a comprehensive outline of an investigation process with informative summary of all sources that will be made use of.

Such proposals are often demanded by supervising tutors for several reasons

Professors need to know that a student understands the problem of research and research questions correctly. What is more, proposal serves a student as a guiding plan that helps in structuring and completion of the investigation prior to starting working on the research itself. It is quite a detailed explanation of the whole study a student is expected to conduct when writing a paper.

Great responsibility lies on the shoulders of every student

Why? That is because this type of writing has to be flawlessly structured, well-organised, logically consequent and rational. The success or failure of the whole dissertation is decidedly dependable on your research proposal. If this assignment is completed professionally, students’ final papers stand a better chance of getting a passing grade.

There are basic components of an effective proposal. However, this list might differ from one case to another, with constant revisiting of previous steps if something goes wrong. These steps are:

  1. Coming up with a research question. The main criterion for this step is thinking of a research question that can be researched. It means you have to choose a thesis that has been previously left aside of any studies and try to find an answer to this question with your research.
  2. Finding and interpreting the outcomes of previously conducted studies. In other words, this part is a comprehensive literature review. It is expected to help you avoid working on the same questions that already have been covered by other researchers.
  3. Setting up a plan for data collecting, limitations and methods. A section discusses your proposed ways of collecting the data. It is important to understand the limitations of your study that you allow for when collecting statistics, numbers, facts, records, interview answers and other information.
  4. Sampling. In this part, you have to describe everything what or who you’re conducting your research about in regards of their number, identity, way and criteria of selection, quantity ad quality of evidence you expect to collect.
  5. Analysis of data. Once you have selected your sample and data from them, you have to set a plan for processing your collected information.
  6. Findings, results and implications. You’re encouraged to state why your research has been useful and where one can take advantage of your findings.
  7. Recommendations. In this entry, researchers usually deliberate and elaborate on the suggestions for further studies.
  8. Conclusion. You have to unequivocally conclude and sum up all of your study and mention the value that your research has brought for your field of study. Surely, do not forget to append your bibliography.

Overall, your research proposal will be effective if you use clear language, if a tutor can understand what your study is about without any ambiguity. Use logical structure for your proposal so that your primary audience can easily follow it. In addition, one more advice, introduce graphs, diagrams and tables to better arrange and illustrate your information. Good luck laying a rock-solid basis for your future researches!


Plagiarism Check Software: How Can I Use Them?


Every person involved in academic writing is well aware of the fact that plagiarism is quite a pressing topic. As far as the issue is on the agenda in our professional activity, we decided to shed some light on the commonly used plagiarism software. First of all, let’s start from what actually the term “plagiarism” means. Most of us consider “plagiarizing” as copying someone’s work or borrowing somebody’s ideas. In fact, “copying” and “borrowing” are only the masking notions for the serious violation.

According to Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary “to plagiarize” means:

  • to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own
  • to use (another’s production) without crediting the source
  • to commit literary theft
  • to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source

All in all, plagiarism is nothing more than fraud and lies

The student can be excluded from the university if the issue of plagiarism has occurred during the learning process.

During the research, you use different sources: articles, on-line books, videos, etc. All these sources finally appear in the Works Cited page. In the body section every paragraph or sentence taken from the other source and is not your own conclusion must be referenced according to demanded academic style.

However, sometimes we neglect the rules of proper referencing or simply forget about in-text citations. Therefore, always better to double-check your paper for plagiarism in order to avoid further issues. For such purpose there are various software programs that will check your paper for plagiarism indicating if there is any matching text accessible in the web.

When choosing the software, it would be better to pay attention to the reputation of the particular company or its product

For example, a well-known company is more likely to sell the software, but not distribute it for free. Please keep in mind that the penalty for plagiarism is always heavier than the amount you are to pay for the program.

N.B. Not all of the plagiarism checking software products are 100% reliable. Some softs, for example, Turnitin, save the papers in their database after checking. What does the latter mean? Imagine the situation when you had written a good dissertation and put a lot of effort in it. Naturally, you will want to check it for instances of plagiarism. If it is Turnitin, the result will be 0% of matching text for the first time. With the happy smile on your face you pass this dissertation to the tutor. He checks the paper with Turnitin and it appears that the paper is 100% plagiarized! How it can be? The reason is the paper has been saved in the database. By the way, a lot of universities and colleges use Turnitin for plagiarism check. In this respect, Turitin not only processes the available data on the Internet, but also it scans its own database of academic papers that have been submitted by different students from all over the world.

In order to avoid such unpleasant situations, do not use Turnitin for plagiarism check. You can always decide in favor of a program which checks only on-line sources while processing your paper and what is more, it won’t add your paper to the base.


How to Write a Brilliant Introduction

Having received a certain experience in academic writing, you probably won’t deny the fact that writing an Introduction is a worrisome area for any researcher. As you know, the first impression is a lasting impression; and it is Introduction that will create the first impression about your paper. Ultimately, building up an Introduction section is a hard gained victory.

Indeed, there are certain kinds of texts where you can avoid formal introduction. However, those texts usually refer to the area of creative writing and the issue cannot be applied to the academic structure of essay or research paper.

Main goal

Introduction aims at putting the paper in touch with the reader and to engage reader’s attention to the topic. Introductions in academic writing lean to persecute certain conventional model. This model consists of certain moves and looks as follows:

  • Move 1. establish a research territory. You can do this by presenting the overall importance of the research field and/or by surveying previous research legacy in the field
  • Move 2. establish a research niche. You can get it done by pointing out a gap in the previous research; or by bringing a counterclaim; or by raising an issue; or by continuing a previous practice
  • Move 3. occupy the niche. It can be done by outlining the aims/essence of the current research and declaring the basic findings. You can also trace the structure of the paper in the introduction

Useful tips for preparing an Introduction

As absurd as it may sound, it is always better to write an Introduction section in the last turn. The point is that your hypothesis, aims, and tasks can be modified during the research process and the final wording of your research model will be evident after the research is complete.
Of course, the above model reflects only general tendency in writing formal Introduction and can be altered from one researcher to another. However, at the beginner’s level, the above model can help getting control over primary skills in academic writing.

It appears that it is high time to start the paper. Remember that apt Introduction is half of the battle. The ability to write papers with clear objectives and accurate results will surely meet customers’ needs and pave your road to career success.


Writing a relevant Literature Review

Writing a good dissertation takes a lot of time, but when it comes to Literature Review, it is far easier to write it, than to plan on exactly “how” and “what” to write in there.
This section is not simply a collection of the available data on the topic. It shows how familiar is the researcher with all of the work that has been done in this field. Preliminary Literature analysis provides a valid background for your study, evaluates the depth of the research that has been done before and, more importantly, it reveals areas that require further study, therefore helping you to formulate the research question.

Ask correct questions

To be able to write a strong Literature Review is no small feat. Most of the time you should keep in mind the following questions:

  • What does the reviewed literature actually tell us?
  • And what is exactly that it “doesn’t” tell us?
  • So, why is all of this important anyway?

If your Literature Review can answer these, you are on the right track.

Analyze the relevant arguments

Before starting to type anything, it is generally a good idea to spend your time analyzing the individual works. You should keep in mind that you are supposed to be as laconic, as possible, presenting not only the relevant information, but also trying to keep it short and simple:

  • identify the main argument
  • analyze if it is well presented and defended
  • study the theoretical approach and the method that the author adopts
  • Identify if the author makes some convincing points and draws valid conclusions

Do not focus on the single source too much

Keep in mind, that Literature Review is essentially an examination of each reviewed work in relation to other works. So, after analyzing one of them, it is important to do so in comparison with others:

  • Does the author of this particular book have more convincing arguments?
  • Or does the other work provide more sufficient data?
  • Do both of the works that you have just presented answer the required questions adequately?

Coherence is your ally

Being coherent in writing the Literature Review is incredibly important. The dissertation must have “a flow”. And your Literature Review sets the standards for it right at the start. For this to be the case, it should have an introduction, the main body and conclusion. You should present it not from the point of view of the researchers whose works you are reviewing, but from your own point of view, the person who now researches the works of others and tries to analyze them.

Why Does My Order Go On Hold

Some of you may already know about the so called ‘on hold’ orders. Newbies on the other hand are yet to experience things like that. In this post we will try to sort the things out and highlight the precise policy. You will find out how to act when the paper is almost done but order does not seem to be in your current list of orders anymore.

The Cause

It is not always possible to reach the customer right after they placed their order. We do not want the writer to work on the paper in vain. That is why we ensure that order goes ‘On Hold’ if it was not verified whether it was the instructions or payment verification.

The reasons for an ‘On Hold’ may vary. Main Issues include:

  • Problems with customer’s payment verification
  • Insufficient or contradicting instructions (and lack of feedback from the customer for a long time)
  • Deadline for the order is not clear and yet to be confirmed with the customer

Should I work on it after receiving on hold notification?

If the order was actually set On Hold you are strongly advised to stop working on the paper even if you have 1 page left. That warning is made to protect your interest and make sure you will not end up without payment if the customer turns out to be fraudulent. That is however only an advice, but if you choose to work on the order even after it went On Hold, you do it at your own risk as compensation is not guaranteed.

Pending Order

If you see an order On Hold in your list and it has been there some time already there is no need to send a reminder to admin about it. We work with these orders on a regular basis doing our best to resolve the ‘hold’ situation. Reassign is possible in case you have not started working on the paper and On Hold status is active for a couple of days


We always work towards improvement, trying to make your working experience easier and more pleasant in a way. On Hold orders is one of the main priorities here as the subject matter is compensation. Unfortunately there is no specific policy that will suit every case.


  • Compensation is possible if you completed and uploaded the paper to the order page and the project went On Hold (only) after that.
  • Compensation cannot be granted if a 10-day order went On Hold after first 24 hours.

Our primary task is to ensure and intensify the productivity of our service. Writers can help us to achieve that by simply following the policy. In case this article had you figured additional questions, feel free to contact us any time

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