Posted: Erin in: Freelance Writing

What are Tautology and Redundancy?

This tasty taste of writing: what are tautology and redundancy and how to avoid them?

Have you ever come across “most recent new research”? Whoever your editor is, this person won’t miss such a construction, which in turn will lower the grade and your rating as a writer. So, it’s time to “specialize the case in details” and define redundancy to avoid it.

Here we deal with linguistic understanding both of redundancy and tautology, and only with it. Redundancy is unnecessary repetition of information both in speech and writing; another proper term for it is pleonasm. It’s also indicated as usage of predictable information or some superfluous words. Two most common types of pleonasm exist: syntactical (grammar) and semantic (word meanings and style).

Grammar redundancy is a kind of rather typical mistake in text

It usually isn’t highlighted with Microsoft Word program or other grammar checkers. It is seen as usage of similar constructions in sentences, same word patterns, repeating pronouns, propositions, and conjunctions. To understand the issue with grammar redundancy, compare two sentences:

“He stretched to the table because he wished to demonstrate that he still could move freely”.

“He stretched to the table to demonstrate he still could move freely”.

Both of them have similar meaning but the first one is overloaded with unnecessary constructions, while the second represents the same idea in a smoother way, following the main dogma of linguistics about “word economy”.

Contrary to grammar redundancy, semantic redundancy can be detected only by humans

People have got logic and imagination to detect contextual synonyms. For example, read this sentence and find two words with the same meaning:
“Scientists have got a general consensus of opinion concerning the solution of garbage recycle problem in the city”

Here, the words “consensus” and “opinion” convey almost the same meaning and usage of both is a kind of semantic redundancy. The same is with such expressions as “innocent and sinless child”, “most recent new research”, “sunset in the evening, “specialize the purpose in details” etc. Semantic redundancy is close to tautology and often is contaminated with it – as a kind of words with similar meaning that are used in the same word construction/sentence/passage.

Tautology is quite similar to semantic redundancy

However it also can also develop in repeating cognate words and simply repeating the same words through the text passage. “Horrible horror film”, “circulation of air circles”, “jump spots built for jumping” and so on give a clear idea of what tautology is.

Academic writing is already tough, and one doesn’t need to further complicate it by overloading texts with repeat constructions. Keep your style simple and re-read the text to eliminate the unnecessary expressions for your works to be clear and engaging to read.

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Posted: Steve in: Freelance Writing

Credible/Non-credible sources

Unreliable sources don’t always contain true, accurate, and up-to-date information. Using these sources in academic writing can result in discrediting writers’ status. That’s why it is extremely important to use credible and reliable sources only. This guide will help you in evaluating whether a source is relevant or not.    

What sources can be considered as credible?

  • materials published within last 10 years;
  • research articles written by respected and well-known authors;
  • websites registered by government and educational institutions (.gov, .edu, .ac);
  • academic databases (i.e. Academic Search Premier or JSTOR);
  • materials from Google Scholar.

What sources should be avoided?

  • out-of-date materials (published over 10 years ago);
  • posts from social networks (i.e. facebook);
  • blogs;
  • research articles without citations;
  • websites ending in .com, .org, .net etc.
NB! Wikipedia can never be considered as a reliable source of information since it can be edited by anyone. However, it can be used when you are first trying to understand the topic. Moreover, there are lots of further links and references that can be useful when doing a research or writing academic papers.

How do I know if a source is reliable or not?

Always ask yourself the following questions in order to determine if a source is trustworthy or not.
1. Who is the author?
Reliable sources are always written by well-known and respected authors. These sources are always properly and accurately referenced. Therefore, when checking the source’s credibility you can find more information for your own research.
2. When was the material published?
Generally, books published in 1990s contain outdated information. Hence, you are expected to use materials published not later than 10 years ago. 3. What is the purpose of a source? Always try to evaluate if the source presents clear and unbiased information or if its aim is to alter and persuade one’s views. A source written from a specific point of view may still be credible, but it can limit the coverage of a topic to a particular side of a debate. 4. How is this source proved? Try to avoid sources that don’t have references or evidence to prove its point of view. Always make sure, if the source provides support to the given claims. 5. What type of audience is this source aimed at? Always take into account what type of sources your audience will value. For example, if you are writing for an academic audience, they will definitely prefer peer-reviewed journals and scholarly papers.
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Posted: Steve in: Freelance Writing

Plagiarism Checkers Review

Plagiarism is the intentional appropriation of authorship. If considered from the viewpoint of academic writing, it is borrowing the works of others, completely or partially and presenting it under your own name or without specifying the name of the real author. We can distinguish the following types of plagiarism: deliberate plagiarism, paraphrasing, patchwork paraphrasing, bluffing, stitching sources, and using a copy of your own work. With flourishing of digital technology, plagiarism becomes a global problem throughout the world. To avoid similarities, various software and online plagiarism detection services were developed and implemented. Today, we will describe the most popular and useful checkers, which are available for everyone.


Turnitin is a global leader when it comes to dealing with plagiarism. It is very popular among University students. Turnitin cooperates with leading universities in order to provide an effective tool to determine the similarities in students’ papers. One of its many features, for example, allows determining papers which have been translated from English into other languages. Turnitin is very widespread software and it is available for users in more than 100 countries around the world. Database of this detection system includes: • more than 1.6 million active teachers • more than 45 billion web pages • more than 10,000 educational institutions • more than 24 million licensed students


It is the professional plagiarism software widely used by research constitutions, scholarly publishers and professional writers. It is possible to check the paper written in over different 30 languages, for example: Japanese, Chinese, German, French, Italian, Arabic, Russian and Turkish. It supports the following types of files: XML, DOC, PDF, HTML, HWP, RTF etc. It contains various types of document in its database: articles from different publications, research papers, manuscripts, business reports, financial analysis, PhD and Masters dissertations. Database of this detection system includes: • more than 38 million (STM) publishers • more than 45 billion web pages • more than 130 million content items


It is a free online checker. However, it also includes the paid version (Premium search). It offers expanded search possibilities and contains more options. The users can check an unlimited number of papers per day. There is an option to save the uploaded text in the Private Index, so that it can search for similarities between the papers checked in the future and the ones that have been uploaded in the database.


It is a free online checker, very similar to CopyScape. However, it is possible to check the paper no more than 10 times per day. It is slightly less reliable that other plagiarism checkers.


It is yet another free online plagiarism checker. PlagiarismCheck allows checking an unlimited number of papers. It is easy to use, smart, but not very fast. It works with a wide variety of document types. It is a possible choice for teacher, students, as well as freelance writers.  You need only to create a free account. There are many others good checkers such us: Dupli Checker,, All of them are simple to use and they are available for everyone. Using them is a matter of preferably. However, when choosing the software or an online service to check the document for plagiarism, one should take into account multiple factors, such as weather this paper will or won’t be stored in the database. Remember, that checking the paper in Turnitin will save the paper and if the customer then checks it there again, it will show 100% plagiarism. Factors like these are all that matters in business, such as Freelance writing. So, please, keep that in mind and don’t plagiarize!
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Posted: Steve in: Freelance Writing

Application Essay

Writing an application essay can be no easy task. Just this small thing can be the very difference between the customer getting accepted into the college or not. Therefore, for you, as for the writer, it is vital to give it your best. And there is more to it than structuring your essay and having a perfect grammar. Choosing a topic and having a fluent and coherent writing is the key to success, of course. With a little bit of planning you will be able to produce the application essay of the highest quality. Here are several tips you should keep in mind that might help you to accomplish this task:
  • First of all, the start. Be sure to have a great opening to your essay. You can choose to use the famous quote, saying, etc. The main point of this is to grab reader’s attention, so that the person would definitely be interested in reading it further.
  • Do not use any templates. Try to be as individual, as possible. Remember, that your goal is to distinguish yourself from many other applicants. Your essay has got to have a personality, a tone, and you should strive to keep it individual till the last full stop.
  • If you are confident in your writing skills, you should try to be as controversial as possible. It is completely alright to touch the topic of politics, religion, etc, as long as you are careful and thoughtful about it. Being able to clearly express your thoughts and state your arguments on certain topics may give you sizeable advantage in comparison to other applicants.
  • Do all you can to avoid clichés. To put it simply, it can ruin everything, however well you may have started. Things like these show that you were too lazy to look for any comparisons or metaphors and have spent most of the time using bland and predictable writing devices. Needles to say, this may send your whole essay down the drain.
  • Make every word count. Don’t forget that there is a limited amount of words you can work with, so you should never waste a single letter.
  • Not only should your every sentence be an integral part of your essay, but it should also be concise. The admission officer has to read hundreds of essays like yours and that is exactly why you do not want him to stop reading it midway.
  • Try to be as accurate, as possible. It means that you should check if your essay meets all criteria and is grammatically and stylistically correct. Also, you should always read it several times to make sure, everything makes sense and you didn’t misspell someone’s name by accident. Minor errors like these can make all the difference in the world.
  • And the last, but not least – time. Make sure to give yourself plenty of opportunity to produce the piece of work of high quality. It is a grave mistake to write an application essay overnight. Give your brain a chance not only to produce some great ideas, but also to revise them and to put everything on paper.
These are only few of many points that you should keep in mind when writing an application essay. Be individual, be smart, be creative and this piece of work will become something that may change customer’s life for the better.
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